All Rise for the Honourable Robot Judge?

Using Artificial Intelligence to Regulate AI: a debate


  • Simon Chesterman National University of Singapore
  • Lyria Bennett Moses University of New South Wales, Australia
  • Ugo Pagallo University de Torino



Ai, robojudge, robot judge, jurisprudence, legal theory


There is a rich literature on the challenges that AI poses to the legal order. But to what extent might such systems also offer part of the solution? China, which has among the least developed rules to regulate conduct by AI systems, is at the forefront of using that same technology in the courtroom. This is a double-edged sword, however, as its use implies a view of law that is instrumental, with parties to proceed- ings treated as means rather than ends. That, in turn, raises fundamental questions about the nature of law and authority: at base, whether law is reducible to code that can optimize the human condition, or if it must remain a site of contestation, of politics, and inextricably linked to institutions that are themselves account- able to a public. For many of the questions raised, the rational answer will be sufficient; but for others, what the answer is may be less important than how and why it was reached, and whom an affected population can hold to account for its consequences.

This contribution is follwed by comments by Lyria Bennett Moses and Ugo Pagallo


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Author Biographies

Simon Chesterman, National University of Singapore

Simon Chesterman is David Marshall Professor of Law, Vice Provost (Educational Innovation), Dean of NUS College, National University of Singapore; Senior Director (AI Governance), AI Singapore

Lyria Bennett Moses, University of New South Wales, Australia

Lyria Bennett Moses is Director of the UNSW Allens Hub for Technology, Law and Innovation and a Professor and Associate Dean (Research) in the Faculty of Law and Justice at UNSW Sydney.

Ugo Pagallo, University de Torino

Ugo Pagallo is professor of Jurisprudence at the Department of Law, University of Turin (Italy)

Cover page for Chesterman debate




How to Cite

Chesterman, S., Bennett Moses, L., & Pagallo, U. (2023). All Rise for the Honourable Robot Judge? Using Artificial Intelligence to Regulate AI: a debate. Technology and Regulation, 2023, 45–57.



Received 2023-10-03
Published 2023-10-03